Archive for the 'props' Category

3D Printable Ninja Gaiden Dragon Helm

… also, build blog. And apparently, it’s called a Hachigane

tl;dr: The printable model is at the end of the post.


Photo by GeneralGau's Kitchen

Photo by GeneralGau’s Kitchen. Yes, this is a photo, not a render.


A bit over a year ago, I decided to make a cosplay of Ryu Hayabusa of Ninja Gaiden fame. This was prompted by friends doing a Dead or Alive 5 group. As a result, this is the NG3/DOA5 version of the character, even though I liked NG1 and 2 much better than 3, and I’m not a huge fan of fighting games. (And also I didn’t finish the costume in time for the group. >_>) Still, I love the costume and character and how the whole thing came together.

Note: NG1 and NG2 have different helm designs than this, so caveat emptor.

The dragon helm was the biggest sticking point for the costume. I had a general idea how to make everything else, but not that.


The standard approach for this kind of prop is a combination of sculpting and casting. Unfortunately, I didn’t feel like my sculpting abilities were up to the task of making a symmetrical, detailed helm. Moreover, I’ve never cast anything bigger than a gem.

So, I started thinking about 3d printing. I had no experience with that, either, but I’d worked on a little bit of 3d code in the past (this 3d viewer has an easter egg that includes my initials) so I figured, how hard could it be?

Source Material

Everything hinged on getting my hands on an in-game model. I had zero actual modeling skills, so recreating a helm from scratch would’ve taken forever and not been very good. Fortunately, I tracked down what seems to be an official in-game model of Ryu by someone named “Sidney”. I don’t have a good official source for it (malware everywhere, sigh), so I’ve included a copy along with the printable model (below).

Screenshot 2014-06-01 04.13.41'

This also contained a texture map that would have helped with painting, had I noticed it at the time. For you, future helm builder:


Extracting just the helm from this model wasn’t difficult; all the hard parts came after.

Making a solid object out of a 3d model

3d printers like to print simple, solid objects. That means a volume of space enclosed by a single layer of triangular mesh, with all the normals facing “out”. (The normal indicates which side of a triangle is the visible, “outer” side, and which side is the invisible “inner” side.)

Video games rendering engines don’t care about any of that. They’ll render any set of triangles you care to slap together. When I first extracted the helm model, this is what it looked like:

Screenshot 2014-06-01 04.19.19'

The red here marks triangles that are facing away from the camera. In addition to that, you can see that there are a lot of triangles jutting out of the model, and overlapping, as so:

Closeup showing artifacts jutting out of the model everywhere.

Closeup showing artifacts jutting out of the model everywhere.

I didn’t at that time have any experience with Maya (or any 3d authoring tools), so it took me a while to figure out what was going on here. As far as I can tell, there were actually two layers of triangles at every point of the model – one layer facing out, and another facing in. The two layers sometimes used the same vertices and sometimes different ones. Inside the game engine, only the layer facing the camera would be rendered, so the overlap was essentially invisible. But if the camera happened to clip inside the volume of the helm, it would see metal all around, instead of blackness. To a 3d printer, this was gibberish.

I tried a few automated approaches to cleaning up the model, without success. Finally, I cut the model in half (to reduce the scope of the task), and then manually went through and deleted all the overlapping faces, and every other face that caused problems. After many hours of this (like I said, no experience), I ended up with this:


This was much more tolerable. I then filled in the gaps with new triangles, and checked the model for errors. After a few iterations, I ended up with a nice, clean 3d model:


The off-color patches are where I had to repair the model’s holes, and lost the textures on the triangles (or something).

I uploaded this to Shapeways, which I had determined was the cheapest method for getting a print. This is a website that will print a model for you, and then ship you the result. They have some competitors, chief among them Ponoko, which has more choice, but is pricier for this kind of basic plastic print.

Shapeways quoted me a price of $1000 and change.

This was somewhat higher than I had budgeted for.

Hollowing out the model

Prices on websites like Shapeways are per unit volume of material used, and the plastic is quite strong, so the right approach is to print out hollowed-out models, instead of solid pieces. That way, you’re only paying for a thin shell, your props are lighter, and your costs are proportional to surface area, not volume.

Unfortunately, it’s quite difficult to hollow out something this complex. There are tutorials on the Shapeways site, but they’re hilariously inadequate for anything complex. They all boil down to creating a smaller model along the negative of the normal from your triangles, but this really only works for convex models with right angles or greater, and completely wrecks models with pointy edges and inward corners like the dragon helm.

After bashing my head against Maya for a week, I came across this awesome tutorial for hollowing models:

Amazing tutorial for hollowing models using Meshlab, an open source 3d editor.

It took a bit of experimentation to get this to work on my model (mostly struggling with triangle counts and file formats), but I managed to create a hollow version of my model.

If you look closely, you can see there are two layers, one slightly inside the other.

If you look closely, you can see there are two layers, one slightly inside the other.

After that, the only problem was that Shapeways requires your model to have only one ‘outer’ surface – they can’t print something with a completely enclosed space. This is because their printing process puts down layers of powder, and then melts the points that are part of the model into a solid. This means that at the end, they need to reclaim the excess powder somehow, which means that any internal hollow must have holes leading out to the surface.

It took another couple of days in Maya to create suitable holes in the back of my model (seriously, I’m a modeling newb):

The shaded triangle and quadrilateral are cutouts between the inside and outside of the hollow model.

The shaded triangle and quadrilateral are cutouts between the inside and outside of the hollow model.

The price was now $250. I agonized over this for a couple of weeks, and finally gave in and ordered it.

Version 1

Version 1 arrived within a couple of weeks. This is what it looks like:





Okay, so first off, it’s amazing. It really does look like the item in the game, and holding it in your hand is all sorts of crazy.

However, there are two major problems:

1) The facets on the curved surfaces. This is smoothed out by the game engine with interpolated normals, but of course there’s no such thing in real life, so it shows up fairly obviously.

2) It’s about an inch too big in every dimension, and while I could make that work, it didn’t make me happy, and happiness is important, right?


I decided to model a second version and then consider how much money I had left.

I started back with the un-hollowed-out piece. I first smoothed out all the surfaces (fortunately Maya has built-in utilities for that).

So smooooth

So smooooth

I reduced its size by about 15% in every dimension, and when I hollowed it out, I made the walls about 30% thinner (the plastic is ridiculously strong). I also made the opening in the back much bigger:

Giant rear hole

Giant rear hole

The result was a reduction in price to $120 (remember, it’s charged by volume of material). Chalk up the first $250 to very expensive experience. I ordered it pretty much immediately, and this is what came:

Modeled here by Samurai Kiss

Modeled here by Samurai Kiss

I’m super happy with it. The only thing I’d change is to make it a tiny bit wider, since it’s rather tight against my head. However, that helps keep in in place, and it comes out just fine in photos.


I wish I’d known about that texture file. I ended up looking at photos of the costume online, and winging a lot of the painting.

Base coat (primer + silver spray paint).

Base coat (primer + silver spray paint).

Painted design (hand-painted acrylic).

Painted design (hand-painted acrylic).

Final weathered version (weathering with acrylic paints).

Final weathered version (weathering with acrylic paints).

The Model

I guess why not, right? Here’s the model file, which you can upload to Shapeways, or use your home 3d printer to print.

Use something like Meshlab to scale it to your head, one size does not fit all.

PLEEEEASE credit me. You can link here or even better to my Facebook page. This model represents 40-50 hours of painstaking work, not to mention money spent. I’d also love to see photos of you cosplaying in this.

Enjoy, and good luck with your costume (or prop or display piece).

Download The Model Here

A few photos of my final Hayabusa cosplay

Photo by Otaku Cop with C & C Cosplay Factory as Kasumi.

Photo by Otaku Cop with C & C Cosplay Factory as Kasumi.

Sailor Pluto’s “Time Key” Staff Cosplay



This is a cosplay build/reminiscence for the Garnet Rod, also known as the Time Key: the key-shaped staff wielded by Sailor Pluto. It was the first cosplay thing I’ve made, so it’s quite primitive. Nevertheless, I’m happy with how it turned out, and I think it looks very authentic to the anime. I didn’t take many photos of the progress, so I’ll reconstruct the build as best I can.


My wife started cosplaying in 2004, and her first cosplay was to be of Sailor Pluto. I offered to make the staff for her. At the time, we lived in a small apartment without many tools, but some friends of ours did a lot of cosplay, so I abused their hospitality and used some of their equipment. I built the staff over the course of a couple of months, coming over to the friends’ place on some weekends, working in our apartment at other times.


I printed an image of the staff full size, to my wife’s scale, on a bunch of sheets of paper taped together. I used an inconsistent scale – the height of the staff and its thickness are scaled to my wife’s height and width relative to the height and width of Sailor Pluto, respectively, rather than matching the same scale. I think this maintains a realistic approximation of the overall character design.



The body of the staff is made of segments of 3/4″ and 1″ dowels, with 1/4″ steel rods to connect and strengthen. The balls are 1.5″ and 2″ diameter wooden balls I got at Michael’s, the key bits are 1/4″ plywood. The carved capital between the body and head is a piece of 4×4, and the curved head is a 1″ piece of oak (which was a pain to carve, believe me). The yellow spheres are marbles, and the red sphere is a christmas ornament.


For tools, I used our friends’ dremel, power sander and hand saws. I also bought a vise and attached it to a ramshackle wooden platform so I could take it around with me. Aside from that, all I used was a hand power drill.

The Build


There are four dowels put together end-to-end, connected with the steel rods. The first step was to cut the dowels to length.

There’s one main long dowel, and then three short ones at the end, alternating between 3/4″ and 1″ to match the staff’s design. I sanded the very lowest one to taper it.

Dowel placement:

Note that the dowels go through the 1.5″ balls. The next step was to drill out those balls, with 3/4″ holes. This was pretty tough, and I broke about half the balls I tried to drill. Fortunately, they came in a fairly large bag.

Next, I drilled holes for the two steel rods. One went through the bottom set of dowels, the other through the top dowel, into the intermediate piece, and then up through the head of the key. The bottom rod goes through the bottom ball and juts out a little, so that when you rest the staff on the ground, it rests on metal.

Steel placement:

Drilling holes for the steel rods was the toughest task. I clamped the pieces in the vise, and took my time drilling and readjusting the alignment. For pieces that had to be drilled all the way through, I drilled separately from the two ends. Despite this, the holes weren’t perfectly aligned, but I tried to match angles when putting the thing together so the errors offset one another.

Once this was done, I drilled out the last (2″) ball to fit the rod and a bit of the last dowel through it, and attached the four pieces of dowel together. If I recall correctly, I used epoxy.

One more task for the body was to drill notches adjacent to each ball. To get a reasonably even pattern, I clamped the dremel in the vise, and then rotated the dowel against the blade.

Key Jigs

I cut the key jigs out of 1/4″ plywood, and attached them by dremeling out notches in the staff, then gluing the key bits with epoxy. This was pretty uneventful, aside from one moment when I drove a saw through my hand and used up all the earlier mentioned friends’ gauze. The epoxy has held admirably over the years. (And I had scars for a while, but can no longer find them.)

One of the few photos I have of progress:

Staff body at the bottom, printed out schematic at upper left, head of the staff left of top center.


The carved part at the top of the staff was a pain. I made it out of a 4×4 piece of pine which I first sanded down to a tapered piece, then dremeled out to carve the grooved shape. It took forever, and the result isn’t terribly even, but it’s okay. I also drilled a hole all the way through this piece for the steel core.


The head of the staff is a single piece of oak, hand-sawed, then sanded and dremeled to coerce it into the right shape. Quite tough work.

Attaching the capital and head

I attached the capital and head the same way as the bottom sections – steel rod through the center, glued together with epoxy.

Another random progress shot: trimming the steel rod to match the size of the head piece.


The red gem was easy — it’s just a christmas ornament painted on the inside. The technique was well known even at the time, and works nicely.

The yellow gems were a pain. First, it’s not easy to find plain-colored marbles. I eventually got some translucent-beige ones you see in the above photo. Fitting and attaching the small 1/4″ one was no problem.

However, attaching the 1/2″ large ones proved problematic. I tried a variety of glues (epoxy, superglue, etc.), but the marbles are heavy for their size, and the surface (even sanded down) doesn’t take glue well. They’d stick, but every time my wife would smack the staff against the ground (even lightly), the marbles would scatter everywhere. The third time this happened, I decided something tougher was needed.

To attach the marbles better, I decided to drill holes in them and use heavy guage wire (nails with the heads snipped off) to connect them. This meant I needed opaque marbles. I tracked down some yellow ones, but could only find the 1/2″ size, not the 1/4″, so now they don’t match. :/ If anyone finds a 1/4″ matching yellow marble, do please let me know.

Drilling was very tough. Even with a glass drill bit, I had trouble making headway, and a bunch of marbles cracked and split. Still, I was able to get it done.

Nail placement:

Gluing this together with epoxy worked out quite well, and none of the marbles have popped off since then.


The final step was to paint. (Actually, it was a couple of steps earlier, but logically the last step.) I used a nice blue metallic acrylic paint from Michael’s. Nothing fancy, and when you look close, you can see wood grain. From a distance, however, it looks perfect.




Dog Cosplay of Amaterasu from Okami



Photo by ~morgoththeone.


Build blog for the costume for the wolf goddess Amaterasu from Okami, built for and cosplayed by my Samoyed dog Dante. Originally posted at my more general blog.

Before I proceed, a few notes for anyone who wants to cosplay their dog:

  • Only do this if the dog will enjoy it.

    • Photo by ~cheebang
    • Dante is exceptionally sociable. Many dogs are not, and may react adversely to being the center of attention. Some might get aggressive.
    • Dante doesn’t care about things being on him, perhaps because he’s bred to be a sled dog. Many dogs don’t like to be encumbered. You can desensitize a dog to wearing things, but don’t just shove a costume on a dog that’s freaked out by it.
    • Watch your dog’s body language in any unusual situation. Make sure they’re happy.
  • Keep the health of your dog in mind.

      Photo by ~octomobiki
    • Don’t leave a costume on for long. This can cause overheating and can tangle fur or cause it to become ingrown.
    • If it’s hot, provide water regularly, if it’s cold, don’t stay out for long, etc.
    • Don’t expose a dog to unusual stimuli for long. This will cause anxiety, even if it’s fun.
    • Don’t apply anything toxic to a dog. (We used food-coloring markers.)
  • Be careful and use common sense.
  • I do not recommend trying this with a cat.


We have a Samoyed by the name of Dante. This is a breed that looks like small, fluffy, white wolf. We also occasionally cosplay. It was inevitable that we would come up with the idea of combining the two.

While planning our Otakon 2011 trip at the start of June, my wife semi-jokingly suggested bringing Dante. To our surprise, our roommates at the con were ecstatic at the idea. Since this was better for him than leaving him in a boarding place for five days, it was decided.

I then figured it would be a great time to do a costume for him. The Amaterasu costume was perfect. Not too complicated, not too heavy, and popular enough to be quite recognizeable.

Overall plan

I decided to do the wings, shield, flames, and paint. I did not do the clouds around the tail and paws. I couldn’t figure out a way to do either of those well without encumbring Dante’s movement or causing him discomfort. Given his general fluffiness, I thought that would be fine.

To attach everything, I decided to make a harness, and then anchor the costume parts to that. This way, it would be easy to put things on and take them off.


This is a balance between comfort and stability. I attached it to his neck, front legs, and stomach. The straps that attach to the legs hook to the main part with buckles, so they can be put on separately.

I then made a little saddle, using fur left over from my wife’s in-progress Felicia costume. It turned out that of all our fur remnants, that one matched Dante ridiculously well, to the point where several people asked how we managed to ‘shave’ him that well for the wings. The saddle is made out of fur just so if people catch glimpses of it, they can’t really tell it’s separate from him.

The main purpose of the saddle is to cushion his back so the shield and flames don’t rest directly on his spine, so it’s two pieces on either side of the center.


I first cut the wings out of foamie to get the shape right. I then took comparatively thick wire and bent it to follow the shape, and stapled it to the foamie (medieval, I know). This formed the base of the wings.

I then took the aforementioned Felicia fabric and cut out a pair of pieces for each wing, larger than the foamie cutout. I stitched them together halfway, inserted the foamie, then hand-sewed them shut the rest of the way. (I tried using the machine, and broke two needles on the wire. There’s just too much fur.)

At first, I was going to attach the wings to the leg parts of the harness, but after trying that, it became obious that this would be way too loose. Instead, I made the wings the leg parts of the harsess. So, they have a loop through which Dante’s front paws go, and the top buckles to the main body of the harness. These are hand-sewn on.

Finally, I did the swirling/cloud designs. I wanted to do this with thread, but that turned out impractical with the thickness of the two layers of fur + foamie. I ended up doing it with a sharpie, and am not entirely happy with the result, since when the fur moves, the lines get messy. I regret not stitching lines before putting the wings together, and am pondering redoing it.


I made the base of the shield out of pink insulation foam, on the general premise that lighter is better in this case. I cut the circle out with a small hand saw and sanded it on my table belt sander, then with sandpaper by hand.

I drew out the design based on a model (the only halfway decent reference I could find), then cut it out of 1/4″ foamie and glued it on with superglue. I primered the shield with spray primer before and after the application of the design (before to protect from glue, after to get ready for painting).

Amateur Hour

Around this point, I thought it would be a good idea to paint the back of the shield white, to make it blend in with Dante’s fur. So I sprayed it with flat white paint. This is one of those things that demonstrates just how amateur a cosplayer I am (several people have laughed at this). The spraypaint ate through the insulation foam, almost all the way to the front. :/ I painted over it with acrylic paint…


I decided early on to make the flames out of a foamie-wire-foamie sandwich (using 1/8″ foamie), so I could shape it in 3D. I went back and forth on what to use as a base. I started with a foamcore torus, but eventually switched to a foam disk. The wire is just embedded as deep into the disk as possible. The foam sandwich is sealed with superglue. The flames are cut out best as possible.

Somewhere around here, I painted the shield with green acrylic paint, and tried the whole thing on the dog. None of this is attached, but Dante was particularly tired out that day (we’d just come back from a dog park), so he was willing to hold still to verify everything was fine:

Painting the flames was a ton of fun. It turns out to be way easier than drawing a harness schematic.

I then glued the shield on. (Some paint touchup still to be done.)

Attaching the Divine Instrument

Finally, I needed to attach the harness and the divine instrument (shield + flames). I decided that magnets would be best, so I could snap the instrument on and off quickly as the situation dictated. I get magnets from I believe these are RC22CS-Ps.

I attached the magnets to the shield, then covered them with extra bits of foamie to fix them firmly in place and painted over those. (Yes, still using superglue.)

I then attached corresponding magnets to the saddle.

Face Paint

That just leaves the face paint. I looked it up, and there were two safe methods: food coloring and dye specifically tailored for dogs. I found food coloring markers that came in a variety of colors, so I ordered those.

Painting his muzzle was easy, because the fur is short. As the fur gets longer, though, it’s harder to draw clean lines. For the first outing, I just did his face, not his sides. The coloring smudges a lot when it’s wet, so be careful, but it’s pretty solid once dry.


And that’s it. It’s remarkably easy to put on – takes 5-10 minutes to do the face paint (and I’ve only done it once) and then 5 minutes to put on the costume, which is:

1) Put on collar and leash
2) Put on harness (two buckles – one around neck, one around stomach)
3) Slide wings over paws and attach to harness (two buckles – one on each wing)
4) Snap the divine instrument onto the harness (magnetic)

Photo by ~cheebang

Wall-clock time: 2 months
Build-time: ~19 hours
Cost: ~$50
Beers consumed: ~2.

For more photos take a look at my Amaterasu deviantart gallery and photos of this cosplay in others’ albums.

For other photos of Dante, friend him on facebook:

Okami Cosplay Comic: Susano and Amaterasu



A few months ago, I was in an Okami photoshoot with my dog and nsomniacartist, photographed by enchantedcupcake. The photos were awesome, and occasionally fairly popular.

While going through a bunch of them, it occurred to me that I could put together a very-short-story type of thing out of some of the shots, so here it is.

Note that the photos weren’t taken with this (or any) story in mind – we were just playing around trying to get good shots.

Resin “Darker Than Black” Mask


Tutorial for the mask worn by Hei (BK201) from Darker Than Black, made out of Bondo resin. It’s tougher and smoother than paper-mache, and takes hours to make rather than days (not counting painting time). However (or ‘Plus’), it involves working with toxic materials.


For Fanime 2011, I made Hei’s costume and dagger. I also made a mask out of foamie, using heat to shape it. It was a dismal failure. Since I had no new costume plans for Fanime 2012, I decided to remake the mask.

There are copious tutorials for making such a mask out of paper-mache (this one seems fine). But that takes several days due to drying times. I didn’t have several days, so I decided to follow more or less those instructions, but with Bondo.


Building material:
bondo (with hardener)
putty knife (a small flexible one to spread bondo with)
stirrer sticks (something to mix Bondo)
scrap paper (somewhere to mix Bondo)
disposable scoop (something to scoop Bondo out of its container)
latex gloves (don’t touch Bondo when it’s liquid!)
respirator (don’t breathe Bondo when it’s liquid!)
a place to work (a garage will do)

Everything else:
party baloon
measuring tape
sandpaper (preferably also a power sander)
paints (spray and/or acrylic, your choice)
sharpie (for drawing on the balloon)
dremel (to cut out the eyes)
hand file with triangular cross section (to shape the corners of the eyes)

Note! In the comments, Monterey Jack points out that Bondo heats up when setting, and can pop your balloon. If one balloon doesn’t work, it may be worth trying a different type.



Measure your head with the measuring tape. Inflate the party balloon to more or less that diameter. Draw out the approximate outline of the mask on the balloon with a sharpie.

Base layer

Don your gloves and respirator and crack open the Bondo. You’ll need someplace to mix (I use scrap construction paper) and something to mix with (I use wooden stirrers). Mix a small amount of putty and hardener, as big as a golf ball. Follow directions on the can for the ratio.

Slather the Bondo mixture onto the balloon using the putty knife, going an inch or so beyond your mask outline. Don’t worry about the result being even. You have about five minutes to work with each batch after you start mixing. As soon as the Bondo mix starts beeing cottage-cheesy, STOP. Throw the rest of that batch away, and mix a new one. You’ll probably have to mix 2-3 batches to cover the mask area.

You should end up with something like this:

(When I did this, I rather wondered if the Bondo would eat through the balloon, like it does with insulation foam. It did not.)

You’ll want to prop the balloon up so that it doesn’t roll Bondo-side down. I used some scrap wood, but whatever you have handy will do.

Wait 30 minutes for the Bondo to fully harden.

Structural layer

Apply a second coat. Slather the Bondo on liberally, especially near the edges of the mask-to-be. Wait another 30 minutes.


Pop the balloon (fun!):

Peel the balloon off the mask (it should come off easily).


Make the first sanding pass. If you have a power sander, use it. A table belt sander with 80 grit or rougher works great. Hand-sand if you must, but it’s going to suck. With a belt sander, this should take you ten minutes. By hand… maybe an hour.

Aim for around 2/3 of the surface to be smooth. If you try to keep sanding after that, you’ll weaken the mask, or even sand holes in it. The result should have a smooth outer surface, and some rough valleys.

While you’re at it, sand the mask closer to the right shape and size (but leave some room for adjustment). Sand, don’t try to cut. Note that the sharpie should have conveniently transferred off the balloon onto the Bondo:

Smooth layer

Apply another coat, but only put Bondo down on the rough patches, and use the putty knife to smooth things flat. This coat is for smoothness, so take your time, and really make sure you get bondo into all those gaps. Wait for it to harden.

Finish sand

Sand again with 80 grit. You should end up with a nice smooth surface. If it’s necessary, repeat the above step for a fourth coat. (I didn’t feel the need.)

Hand sand with 100 grit or finer to get a nice smooth finish. The remaining discolorations are from inconsistent Bondo batch mixes, not from roughness.

The mask is now built, and should’ve only taken 2-3 hours including drying time.


Draw and cut out the eyes with the Dremel. Use a cutting bit to make a center incision, then use a sanding bit to shape the eyes. Use the triangular file to get the corners of the eyes. Also, sand the mask shape to exactly where you want it to be.


Paint. I used spray primer and flat white paint, and then acrylic paint for the lightning bolt and mouth. This step took me a long time (I’m no good with a paintbrush and had to reprimer and start over several times.)


Add anchors to be able to wear the mask. I used two magnets on the back, which attach to a band that goes around my head under my wig. If you’re going to do that, glue before you paint, otherwise the glue will bond to the paint, and the magnets will come off with the paint. (As I learned the hard way, and you can see in the photo here.)

Sample photos

What could be done better?

A balloon is not a perfect representation of the shape of the mask. Really, you want something that curves more around the vertical axis than around the horizontal. Maybe the back of a mannequin head? You can tell that the mask extends a bit far to the sides of my face because of that. On the other hand, the anime is wildly inconsistent (and physically impossible, of course), and this shape is a reasonable approximation.

I’m not perfectly happy with my painting job, either, but this is about my fifth attempt, and I’m not about to reprimer/paint again.

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